Matthew 6:5-8 “How (not) to pray like a Hypocrite”

A sermon by Nate Wilson for Christ the Redeemer Church, 28 Aug 2011


6:5 And whenever y’all pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites that love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets in order that they might be put in the limelight by men. I’m telling you truly, they are holding off on their reward.

6:6 But as for you, whenever you pray, enter into your closet, and after you have closed your door, start praying to your Father who is in the secret [place], and your Father who sees in secret will reward you [in the limelightTR].

6:7 Now, when y’all pray, don’t start blabbering like the Gentiles, for they suppose that it is through their long-windedness they will be listened to.

6:8 Therefore, don’t begin to be like them, for your Father knows that which you are having need of before you request it.

1. How to pray like a Hypocrite

1.a) Ostentatiously (For Men to hear)

Mat 6:5  και ‘οταν προσευχη[σθεB,f1] ουκ εσεσθε ‘ως ‘οι ‘υποκριται ‘οτι φιλουσιν εν ταις συναγωγαις και εν ταις γωνιαις των πλατειων εστωτες προσευχεσθαι ‘οπως [ανMaj] φανωσιν τοις ανθρωποις. Αμην λεγωυμιν [‘οτιMaj] απεχουσιν τον μισθον αυτων.

And whenever y’all pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites that love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets in order that they might be seen [put in the limelight] by men. I’m telling you truly, they are holding off on their reward
 [or,as we saw last week, this can also be interpreted, “they have received their reward in full”].


This phrase for “street” or “city plaza” εν ταις γωνιαις των πλατειων

s         is used in the book of Esther – it is the public place where Haman had to proclaim the king’s favor upon Mordecai. (Esther 6:11)

s         It may have been what we think of as a street corner where traffic could see you coming in two different directions, or it could mean taking an anchor spot in the city square or plaza where everyone walked by to conduct their business and would see you.

s         Anyway, there is only one other place in the Bible where someone is described as standing in the corners of the streets, and that’s the strange woman of Proverbs 7 – it’s quite possible that Jesus intended that allusion to shock the religious leaders of His time into realizing how terrible their selfish pride was.


v.5 says they “loved” (φιλουσιν) to pray while standing in public places like church assemblies or busy traffic areas in town. Why? Because that way more people saw them praying. The reason they loved it was that they loved the admiration of people in those public places; their love was not directed toward God to enjoy fellowship with Him in prayer. That was a problem! If you want to pray like a hypocrite, do it in such a way that you get the most people to see you and set your heart on loving the attention you get from those people! Forget about God.

1.b) Loquaciously (long-windedness)

Mat 6:7  Προσευχομενοι δε μη βατταλογησητε ‘ωσπερ ‘οι εθνικοι δοκουσιν γαρ ‘οτι εν τη πολυλογια αυτων εισακουσθησονται

Now, when y’all pray, don’t start blabbering like the Gentiles, for they suppose that it is through their long-windedness they will be listened to.

This is the only place this word βατταλογησητε occurs in the Bible, so its meaning is somewhat cryptic:

  1. KJV translates it “use… vain repetitions” / ESV “heap up empty phrases” / NASB “use meaningless repetition” / NIV “keep on babbling”
  2. Strong’s Lexicon says it is a compound word composed of “Battos” (a proverbial stammerer) + logos (word) and therefore means “stutter”
  3. Thayer’s lexicon is in agreement: 1) to stammer 2) to repeat the same things over and over, to use many idle words, to babble, prate. Some suppose the word derived from Battus, a king of Cyrene, who is said to have stuttered; others from Battus, an author of tedious and wordy poems.
  4. I found other educated guesses in other books that it is either onomatopoeia (βατταλογησητε  is supposed to sound like your babbling, but I just don’t hear it) or that it is from the Aramaic word “Batalta” meaning “Idle, vain” (which sounds reasonable to me).
  5. The meaning is clarified by seeing what it is compared to and contrasted with in this verse. It is compared to the way Gentiles/pagans/heathen pray, as well as to praying with “many words,” and it is contrasted with prayers addressed to a God who knows what you need before you ask.
  6. So how did pagans pray back then?
    1. In Acts 19:29-34, a silversmith named Demetrius, who lived in Ephesus, Turkey, was losing business because so many people were getting converted to Christianity by the Apostle Paul, that he wasn’t able to make as much money as he was used to with selling silver idols of Artemis, a local goddess. So he gets all the other silversmiths in town to march through the streets shouting, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians.” Everybody in the city was stirred up by this and they followed the silversmiths into the town theater where, they sat and shouted for about two hours, "Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!" together. That was pagan worship of Bible times.
    2. Heauton-timor-umenos of Terence wrote this complaint about his wife’s long-winded prayers about their baby: “Pray thee, wife, cease from Stunning the gods with thanksgivings, because thy child is in safety; unless thou judgest of them from thyself, that they cannot Understand a thing, unless they are told of it a Hundred Times.” (ver. 880, according to Adam Clarke)
    3. Jews fell into the same superstitions, too:

                                                              i.      "everyone that multiplies prayer is heard" (T. Hieros. Taaniot, fol. 67. 3);

                                                            ii.      “whoever prolongs his prayer, his prayer does not return empty; and he that is long in prayer, his days are prolonged” (Zohar in Exod. fol. 104. 4).

                                                          iii.      Jesus condemned the Pharisees for their long, pretentious prayers (Mat_23:14).

  1. Nowadays, we see this pattern carried over in the rote prayers and magic sayings of false religions, where “prayer” is the mere repetition of a set of words:
    1. In Islam, everyone must wash in exactly the same way, bow in exactly the same direction at the same time and say the exact same words from the beginning of the Quaran to begin their prayer: “In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Master of the Day of Judgment. Thee we worship and Thee we ask for help. Show us the straight path.[1]
      Often Muslims will carry a string of beads which they will finger one after the other to keep track of how many times they recited this incantation. Actually, prayer beads are common in several religions, not only in Islam, to keep track of repetitions.
    2. My Hindu friend in college from India read a pre-written prayer out of the Vedas every day in front of a photograph of his family’s guru. So if the Vedas were compiled in 3,500 BC, Hindus in his tradition, have been repeating the same words in prayer for 5,500 years.
    3. In Buddhism, the best-known mantra is “Om mani padme hum.” “Mani padme” means “jewel in the lotus,” while “om” and “hum” are sounds believed to have special supernatural power. Some will write these words on a paper and clip it onto a wheel and spin the wheel round and round in hopes that this will send magic power out.[2] “Vain repetition.”
    4. When I was a little boy, my grandmother handed me a cassette tape that she said was from a very spiritual teacher. It was from a Roman Catholic nun. I remember being perplexed because when I listened to the tape, it was just this woman repeating Luke 1:42 over and over again, “Holy Mary, mother of God, blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb.” I kept listening hoping she would say something else, but it was nothing but this incessant repetition of this sentence for 45 minutes! Later, after I had graduated from college, I did yard work for a Roman Catholic man who was on his death bed at home. One day, he called me into his bedroom and asked me to “say the Our Father.” He added that he thought God would hear my prayer better than his. It took a few seconds for me to register that he was asking me to recite the Lord’s Prayer, but he was asking me to say it as though it were a recitation. That’s not Christian prayer.
    5. There are even traditions within the Christian church which follow these pagan ways. I was in a prayer meeting once with a bunch of missionaries, and one of them started saying, “Hudda Gudda, Hudda Gudda” over and over again. He considered this to be a form of prayer. Later when I asked him about it, he said that in order to speak in tongues, it usually helps to repeat a meaningless phrase (like “Hudda Gudda”) over and over again in order to release the gift of tongues. I found the website of a certain man named Simon Measures where he answered questions regarding speaking in tongues in an alarming way:  A visitor to this web site wrote: “I am desperately trying to learn to speak in tongues. Is there something I am missing? I am afraid I will not learn how - can you help?” His reply concluded, “…if necessary just babble like a baby! Start praising God and yield you [sic] tongue to the stirrings that rise up from your heart by the Holy Spirit. Don't tune in to the sounds being made - attend to what is happening in your spirit…” Another person asked, When I pray in tongues it sounds so faky, repetitious and unsatisfying. What could be my problem?...” His reply: “You know it just sounds like you've allowed your mind to interfere with the gift you've received in your heart…” and he proceeded to teach her how to disconnect her mind from her speech[3]. Such teachers may be sincere, but they are sincerely wrong.
    6. Another thing that well-meaning Christians do is to use filler words or phrases which are not meaningful in themselves but seem to be just a way to avoid awkward pauses, such as, “Lord, we are just here Lord, and Lord, I am just praying Lord that you would just really be here too, Lord…” – now, it is quite possible for a person to be sincerely using the word “Lord” as a recognition of God’s greatness and God’s leadership over their lives, but it can also be misused as a meaningless filler word. The bottom line is that our prayers should not be made to impress people with the words or phrases we use, but rather our prayers should be honest attempts to speak real thoughts to God.
    7. God is a personal God who is not interacted with in impersonal ways. He is not a slot machine that will dispense certain things if you say the right magic words.
    8. God is also not an irrational God; He is a God who communicates in language we can understand and has given us minds that crave understanding and to be understood. He is not a God to be interacted with through disconnecting your mind. That is the way the pagans pray, and they do not pray to our God.
    9. “The fault is that is here reproved and condemned; it is making a mere lip-labour of the duty of prayer, the service of the tongue, when it is not the service of the soul... like that imitation of the wordiness of a fool, Ecc_10:14, … this error is when we only say our prayers, and not when we pray them. This caution is explained by that of Solomon (Ecc_5:2), ‘Let thy words be few,’ considerate and well weighed; ‘take’ with you words (Hos_14:2), ‘choose out’ words (Job_9:14), and do not say everything that comes uppermost… Lip-labour in prayer, though ever so well-laboured, if that be all, is but lost labour.” ~Matthew Henry

2. How you should pray

NOT like the hypocrites - Mat 6:5  και ‘οταν προσευχη[σθεB,f1] ουκ εσεσθε ‘ως ‘οι ‘υποκριται


This does NOT mean:

s         That you should never pray standing up – Jesus actually encouraged His disciples to pray while standing up in Mark 11:25. What was wrong with the hypocrites was that they prayed standing up because that would allow the maximum number of people to see them and pay attention to them. Likewise, I’ve seen people kneel because they thought it would make them look more spiritual. We should chose our posture to pray based on what we need to be doing before God at the time, not based on what other people will think about us. That also means that if you neighbor decides to kneel during the prayer of confession, you shouldn’t assume they are showing off and trying to look more spiritual than you.

s         That you shouldn’t pray in public. There are many godly men like Ezra, Nehemiah, Daniel, Simeon, Jesus, Steven, Peter, and Paul who prayed publicly and in front of others, otherwise we would have no examples of how to pray. Paul wrote to Timothy, a pastor-in-training, about what to do in church worship services: “…I urge that entreaties and prayers, petitions and thanksgivings, be made on behalf of all men…  This is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior…  For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus… I was appointed a preacher and an apostle… I want the men in every place to pray, lifting up holy hands…  A woman must quietly receive instruction… I do not allow a woman to teach...” (1 Timothy 2:1-12 NASB) Prayer in front of others in the church is good if it can be done with the right attitude, not ostentatiously or loquaciously to get appreciation from the humans who hear you, but sincerely to God to communicate with Him.

s         That you can’t repeat yourself. Jesus prayed three times in Gethsemane “saying the same words over again” (Mat_26:44). Sometimes our minds are so tired or overwhelmed that we can’t muster much creativity. There have been times even in the last year when all I could do was pray, “I am yours, Lord, save me,” and I repeated it because I had nothing else I could say. But I wasn’t using it as a magic formula, I was earnestly trying to not go off the deep end but rather trust God and fight pain and fear and fatigue by expressing faith and hope in God in the only words that I could think of.

s         That you can’t pray a long prayer: “Christ prayed all night (Luk_6:12). Solomon's was a long prayer (1 Chron 6:14-42). There is sometimes need of long prayers when our errands and our affections are extraordinary; but merely to prolong the prayer, as if it would make it more pleasing or more prevailing with God, is that which is here condemned; it is not much praying that is condemned – no, we are bid to pray always – but much speaking.” (Matthew Henry)

2.a) To the omnipresent God

Mat 6:6  Συ δε οταν προσευχη εισελθε εις το ταμειον σου και κλεισας την θυραν σου προσευξαι τω πατρι σου τω εν τω κρυπτω και ‘ο πατηρ σου ‘ο βλεπων εν τω κρυπτω αποδωσει σοι [ἐν τῷ φανερῷMaj,f13,it].

But as for you, whenever you pray, enter into your closet/room, and after you have closed your door, start praying to your Father who is in secret [in the secret placeNKJV, or unseenNIV], and your Father who sees in secret will reward you [openlyKJV/in the limelight].


To underscore the personal relationship with God found in prayer, Jesus switches to the singular “you,” Hey, each one of you, when you pray, make sure it’s just to God, not for other people to overhear!

The only commands (imperatives) in this passage are found in this verse (6): εισελθε προσευξαι “enter…and pray” (“Close the door” is not grammatically an imperative in the Greek text here, for it is a participle which doesn’t have an imperative mood, but since Greek participles can take on the qualities of the other verbs in a sentence, it might also be included as an imperative, and that’s how the ESV, NAS, and NIV have translated it.)


1.      First we are commanded to “go into” our ταμειον – safe-room/storage-room/closet/inner-chamber Only found 3 other places in the Bible:

  1. Opposite of outdoors: Matthew 24:26 NASB  "So if they say to you, 'Behold, He is in the wilderness,' do not go out, or, 'Behold, He is in the inner rooms,' do not believe them.
  2. Parallel with dark and contrasted with housetop: Luke 12:3 NASB  "Accordingly, whatever you have said in the dark will be heard in the light, and what you have whispered in the inner rooms will be proclaimed upon the housetops.
  3. Used to describe the place in the house where food is stored: Luke 12:24 NASB  "Consider the ravens, for they neither sow nor reap; they have no storeroom nor barn, and yet God feeds them; how much more valuable you are than the birds!


So We are commanded to enter this secluded place and pray.

s         This should be obeyed literally. There should be a place where you can retire to pray where you can physically withdraw from the world around you. In a 3-BR house with 12 other occupants, It’s hard for me to find a separate room in my house that I can get away from everybody in, so I have established a practice of going out to a lonely corner of a friend’s farm in order to get special uninterrupted time to pray about once a month. It should probably be more often, but it’s better than nothing.

s         Not every context for prayer can be this private, however. We are told to “pray without ceasing,” (1 Thess 5:17) and we are told to pray with other believers (James 5:14-16), and even for unbelievers (Acts 7:60). We can’t always physical­ly retire, but we can obey the spirit of Christ’s teaching by figuratively retiring from the cares of the world and imagining ourselves entering the throne room of God as we begin to pray so that our attitude becomes that of communicating with God rather than trying to impress people.


Wherever we are, God sees us. He is the God who sees.

s         This phrase “your father who sees in secret” is, I think, an allusion to a lesson which God taught in Ezekiel 8:12. The elders of Israel were worshipping idols in a secret room of Solomon’s temple. They thought nobody else knew; they even said, “The Lord doesn’t see!” but God could see right through those walls into the secret chambers and was disgusted, so he enabled the prophet Ezekiel also to get an x-ray vision into the temple’s inner chambers, and said “Now you’ve seen what they do in secret!” and told Ezekiel to blab to everybody in Israel so that the elders would realize that God is the God who sees what is done in secret and nothing can be hidden from him. God sees what is done secretly, whether it is evil we are hiding or whether it is appropriate pray from a secluded place.

s         If we will pray to God – whether we have literally or figuratively retired into a place where we are not distracted by the world or seen by men, He will “reward” you. We looked a bit already last week at that reward of eternal pleasures in the presence of God in heaven.

s         Because God is omnipresent, we can pray to Him anywhere, even from solitary places, and He will hear us because we’re talking to Him, not just trying to get people to listen to us.

2.b) To the omniscient God

Mat 6:7  Προσευχομενοι δε μη βατταλογησητε8  μη ουν ομοιωθητε αυτοις οιδεν γαρ ‘ο πατηρ ‘υμων ων χρειαν εχετε προ του ‘υμας αιτησαι αυτον.

Now, when y’all pray, don’t start blabbering like the Gentiles… 8 Therefore, don’t begin to be like them, for your Father knows that which you are having need of before you ask/request it.


How do you pray to a God who already knows what your needs are? How do you pray to a God who already knows what you’re going to say? How does that make a difference between the way Christians pray and the way other religious groups pray?

  1. One difference is that we recognize that as created – and therefore limited – beings, we are fundamentally dependent rather than independent beings. In other words, God doesn’t have needs, but we do have needs. God doesn’t need anybody to help Him, but we need God to help us. God knows this and He has commanded us to acknowledge our dependent relationship upon Him by praying to Him for what we need.
    1. We are not like secular humanists who believe that we humans have all the power we need to take care of all our own problems together without God. No!
    2. Psalm 145:15-16 NASB  The eyes of all look to You, And You give them their food in due time.  You open Your hand And satisfy the desire of every living thing.
    3. Prayer is an expression of this kind of dependence upon God who knows we have needs.
  2. Prayer is not a magic charm that manipulates a divine slot-machine into providing for needs. Believing that God already knows what our needs are leads us to recognize that He already has a plan for the best timing of providing for our needs, and that plan is already in action apart from our requests. Although we are commanded to ask for needs, it implies a willingness to wait on God’s timing to answer. Waiting is a key word in the Bible.
    1. Jacob prayed, Gen 49:18  "For Your salvation I wait, O LORD.
    2. David said, Psalm 25:3-5 Indeed, none of those who wait for You will be ashamed; Those who deal treacherously without cause will be ashamed.  Make me know Your ways, O LORD; Teach me Your paths.  Lead me in Your truth and teach me, For You are the God of my salvation; For You I wait all the day.
    3. Psalm 27:13-14 I would have despaired unless I had believed that I would see the goodness of the LORD In the land of the living.  Wait for the LORD; Be strong and let your heart take courage; Yes, wait for the LORD.
    4. Psalm 40:1-3 I waited patiently for the LORD; And He inclined to me and heard my cry.  He brought me up out of the pit of destruction, out of the miry clay, And He set my feet upon a rock making my footsteps firm.  He put a new song in my mouth, a song of praise to our God; Many will see and fear And will trust in the LORD.
    5. Psalm 130:5-6 I wait for the LORD, my soul does wait, And in His word do I hope.  My soul waits for the Lord More than the watchmen for the morning; Indeed, more than the watchmen for the morning.
    6. ISAIAH also referred to waiting as being a central part of godliness: Isaiah 8:17 And I will wait for the LORD who is hiding His face from the house of Jacob; I will even look eagerly for Him.
    7. Isaiah 25:9 And it will be said in that day, "Behold, this is our God for whom we have waited that He might save us. This is the LORD for whom we have waited; Let us rejoice and be glad in His salvation."
    8. Isaiah 26:8 Indeed, while following the way of Your judgments, O LORD, We have waited for You eagerly; Your name, even Your memory, is the desire of our souls.
    9. Isaiah 40:31 Yet those who wait for the LORD Will gain new strength; They will mount up with wings like eagles, They will run and not get tired, They will walk and not become weary.
    10. Isaiah 49:23 "Kings will be your guardians, And their princesses your nurses. They will bow down to you with their faces to the earth And lick the dust of your feet; And you will know that I am the LORD; Those who hopefully wait for Me will not be put to shame.
    11. OTHER PROPHETS: JEREMIAH 14:22 Are there any among the idols of the nations who give rain? Or can the heavens grant showers? Is it not You, O LORD our God? Therefore we hope in [wait for] You, For You are the one who has done all these things.
    12. HOSEA 12:6 Therefore, return to your God, Observe kindness and justice, And wait for your God continually.
    13. JESUS Acts 1:4-5 Gathering them together, He commanded them not to leave Jerusalem, but to wait for what the Father had promised, "Which," He said, "you heard of from Me;  for John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now."
    14. PAUL: Romans 8:24-28 For in hope we have been saved, but hope that is seen is not hope; for who hopes for what he already sees?  But if we hope for what we do not see, with perseverance we wait eagerly for it.  In the same way the Spirit also helps our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we should, but the Spirit Himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words;  and He who searches the hearts knows what the mind of the Spirit is, because He intercedes for the saints according to the will of God.  And we know that God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose.
    15. Philippians 3:20 … our citizenship is in heaven, from which also we eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ;
    16. 1 Thessalonians 1:9-10 …you turned to God from idols to serve a living and true God,  and to wait for His Son from heaven, whom He raised from the dead, that is Jesus, who rescues us from the wrath to come. (NASB)

To summarize, prayer is an expression of humble dependence upon our infinite God, and is not so much informing God as it is a way of waiting on God to provide for our needs.

  1. Thirdly, praying to a God who “knows” means that we are not approaching an impersonal force or a mindless energy, but rather a personal God and therefore a God with whom we should expect a mutual exchange of personal knowledge, feelings, desires, and even disappointments. Since God has thoughts, we should approach prayer to Him by expressing our own thoughts respectfully to Him as we would another person in a conversation, and we should expect that He will reveal at least some of His thoughts to us.
    1. JFB “[God] links all His promised supplies to their petitions for the; thus encouraging us to draw near and keep near to Him, to talk and walk with Him, to open our every case to Him, and assure ourselves that thus asking we shall receive…”
    2. Because God’s personality is different from ours, we shouldn’t expect Him to talk to us quite the same way another human would, but He has His ways, usually through bringing certain Bible verses to our attention that He has previously expressed to the prophets or apostles, often also through bringing thoughts to our minds, or bringing friends with just the right words to say at the right time.
    3. The point is that it makes a difference in how we pray if we believe God possesses personal knowledge and communicates back!


(6:7) The Gentiles think that God only hears if you pray with lots of words, but we know that it is something different that reaches into His ears (eisakouw), as it were, and incites Him to answer.

s         This is the word used when God sent messengers to Zacharias (the father of John the Baptizer) to let him know his prayers for a son would be answered affirmatively (Luke 1:13),

s         as well as in the case of Cornelius the Roman Army captain, when God sent a messenger to let Him know that His prayers for salvation would be answered that week (Acts 10:31).

s         It is also used in Hebrews 5:4-7 And no one takes the honor to himself, but receives it when he is called by God, even as Aaron was. So also Christ did not glorify Himself so as to become a high priest, but He who said to Him, "YOU ARE MY SON, TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU"; just as He says also in another passage, "YOU ARE A PRIEST FOREVER ACCORDING TO THE ORDER OF MELCHIZEDEK." In the days of His flesh, He offered up both prayers and supplications with loud crying and tears to the One able to save Him from death, and He was heard because of His piety. (NASB)

This “piety” is the Greek word εὐλάβεια

s         From “eu-,” meaning “good” and lambanw, meaning “receiving”,

s         Thayer defined it as “1) caution, circumspection, discretion… 2) reverence, veneration, [including] 2a) reverence toward God…”

s         I might add that this word is consistently used of people who not only are cautious regarding things that are spiritually dangerous (like disobeying God and getting Him mad - Job 19:29), but who are also obedient to God (Like Noah who built the ark - Heb 11:7) and who are waiting eagerly for God’s salvation (Like Simeon who was looking for the Messiah - Luke 2:25)[4]


So here is an introduction to prayer – especially what prayer is NOT.

s         Prayer is NOT to be made in a showy way to impress other people, but IS to be done in a respectful, personal way to communicate to God.

s         Prayer is NOT about repeating a certain magic set of words or saying words over and over again, but rather IS intended to be heart-to-heart communication between us and God.

s         (If you want to learn how to pray, just read the Psalms, they are full of great examples of prayer!)

s         Jesus commands us to withdraw – whether figuratively or literally – from the presence of other people to pray so that we are NOT tempted to try to impress other people but rather so we can focus on our prayer being between us and God.

s         We pray to a personal God who is omnipresent so we know He hears us – no matter where we are,

s         And we pray to a God who is omniscient, so we 1) come in humble dependence upon Him, 2) waiting on His timing for answers, and 3) praying with the expectation of inter-personal communication with Him.

Next week I plan to get into the more positive teaching of what prayer IS, as we study the Lord’s Prayer in the following verses.

[1] An English translation of the first surah of the Quaran, Copied from

[2] From Eerdman’s Handbook to the World’s Religions, p.237.


[4] The various forms of this Greek word are found in: Exo_3:6; Lev_15:31; Deu_2:4; Jos_22:24; 1Sa_18:15; 1Sa_18:29; Job_13:25; Job_19:29; Pro_2:8; Pro_28:14; Pro_30:5; Isa_51:12; Isa_57:11; Jer_4:1; Jer_5:22; Jer_15:17; Jer_22:25; Mic_7:2; Nah_1:7; Hab_2:20; Zep_1:7; Zep_3:12; Zec_2:13; Mal_3:16; Luk_2:25; Act_2:5; Act_8:2; Act_22:12; Heb_5:7; Heb_11:7; Heb_12:28;